The decision to use a methodology or not can have an impact on productivity. Productivity is slower using a methodology. However, using a methodology has been shown to reduce defects..
For example, for CMM(I) compliant companies: productivity is slower, project duration is increased but defects are reduced.
There are also different development techniques such a prototyping, rapid application development, joint application development and object oriented analysis. All affect productivity, speed of delivery and defects delivered.
Tools such as project management tools improve productivity and have lesser defects according to the projects in the data. The details of the data sample and results can be found at Techniques Tools – Analysis Report. See Report Subscriptions for more details.